All known elements are arranged in the increasing order of their atomic number in the modern periodic table. In an atom, the outermost shell is known as valence shell and electrons placed in this shell are called as valence shell electrons. The valence shell electrons take part in the chemical bonding and chemical reactions with other atoms. All elements tend to get the octet configuration which makes them stable just like Nobel gases.
We know that the electronic configuration of Noble gases is ns2, np6 which is called as octet configuration. So how does an element get this stable configuration? There are two possible ways to get this configuration. One is either sharing their valence electrons with other elements or by the complete transfer of electrons to form ions. The sharing or transfer of electrons creates some attraction force between elements that is called as chemical bond. The formation of chemical bond completes the octet configuration of element and makes them stable in a molecule. The sharing of electrons between bonded atoms forms a covalent bond whereas complete transfer of electrons forms ionic bonds. Let’s discuss what chemical bond is and how different types of chemical bonds are formed between the elements.
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"Oxidation is the loss of electrons from an atom."
"Reduction is the process in which an atom gains one or more electrons."
These represent two extremes and all bonds have at least some degree of both ionic and covalent character. Compounds in which the bonding is predominantly ionic are called ionic compounds, and those in which the bonding is predominantly covalent are called covalent compounds.
In addition attractive interactions between atoms of different molecules can give rise to weak bonds of the following types.
Bonding between metal ions is known as metallic bonding.
An important characteristic of chemical bonding is the maximum number of bonds that a given atom can make. The number of covalent bonds that an atom can form is called its valence. The number of possible bonds is limited only by the number of atoms that can touch each other simultaneously.
|Number of valence pairs
CH4, CCl4, GeF4
|More topics in Chemical Bonding|
|Coordinate Covalent Bond||Intermolecular Forces|
|Bond Energy||Ionic Bonding|
|Covalent Bonding||Metallic Bonding|
|Hydrogen Bonding||Dispersion Forces|
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