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O$_3$ Molecular Geometry

The chemical bonds are formed by the sharing or transfer of valance electrons of the bonded atoms.  The covalent bond is formed by sharing of equal number of valence electrons whereas ionic bond is formed by complete transfer of valance electrons which results the formation of ions; cation or anion. When atoms are bonded through covalent bonds, it results the formation of covalent compounds. Covalent compounds have certain geometry or structure which is called as molecular geometry. The molecular geometry represents the arrangement of bonded atoms and their location with respect to other atoms. 

The electronic geometry represents the distribution of electrons on bonding atoms. It also provides complete information about the position of bond pairs and lone pairs. Remember, bond pairs are bonding electrons which involve in bonding between atoms. They are basically valance electrons of bonded atoms which are placed in between the bonded atoms. Whereas lone pairs do not take part in bonding and remain inter over certain atoms. The Lewis structure of molecules represents the arrangement of bonding electrons and also lone pairs. Another way to check the molecular geometry is use of VSEPR theory which provides complete information about the molecular geometry and bond angle in the molecule.

Molecular geometry provides complete information about the relative positions of the atomic nuclei in the molecule. It is also provide other details such as bond lengths, bond angles and the angles of torsion. Diffraction methods and Spectroscopic methods can also be used to check the molecular geometry and electronic geometry of molecules. VSEPR theory states that the molecular geometry can be predicted with the help of electron pair geometry about the central atom.  VSEPR theory provides a certain picture for the structure of molecules with the help of bonding electrons. The bonding electrons have tendency to arrange themselves in such a way that there will be minimum repulsion between bonded atoms which can only possible with maximum distance. VSEPR purposed certain molecular geometry for those molecules which have only bond pairs such as two electron pairs arrange in linear geometry. For example; $BeF_2$ and $CO_{2}$ are linear compounds. Similarly three electron pairs are arranged in Trigonal Planar geometry in which a central atom is bonded with three pairs of electrons. For example boron trifluoride shows trigonal planer structure whereas presence of lone pair in $SO_{2}$ changed the geometry as bent or angular. The four electron pairs are arranged in tetrahedral geometry in which a central atom is bonded with four pairs of electrons in tetrahedral manner. Most common example of tetrahedral geometry is methane molecule in center atom is carbon atom which is bonded with four hydrogen atoms.  Presence of lone pair can change the molecular geometry to trigonal pyramidal like in case of $NH_{3}$. 

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O$_3$ Molecular Geometry Definition

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The molecular geometry of a molecule is used to predict the location of lone pairs and bond pairs in a molecule. Molecular geometry can be predicted with the help of Valance bond theory and VSEPR theory. Valance bond theory provides idea about hybridization in a molecule whereas VSEPR theory states about the effect of lone pair on the position of atoms and also bond angle. Lone pair- lone pair repulsion is maximum and bond pair –bond pair repulsion is minimum therefore to minimize this repulsion, atoms arranged themselves that results some change in bond angle.  In case of ozone molecule, Lewis structure represents that there are three lone pairs over 1 oxygen atom, 2 on another whereas center oxygen atom contains only one lone pair. 

Lewis Structure of Ozone

Since molecule shows resonance therefore the bond length of both bonds remains same and the central O atom is bonded to the two outer O atoms with one lone pair of electrons.

O$_3$ Molecular Shape

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Valance bond theory proved that the center oxygen atom is in $sp^2$ hybridization which makes the molecule trigonal planer and the bond angle should be 120^${\circ}$.  But the presence of lone pair of electron over center atom, distort the molecular geometry of molecule to bent shape. This is due to repulsion between lone pair and bond pair of ozone molecule. 

Molecular Shape of Ozone Molecule

O$_3$ Electron Pair Geometry

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Electron Geometry of Ozone Molecule

The Lewis structure of ozone molecule provides complete information about distribution of electrons in molecule.  There is one lone pair on the center oxygen atom of molecule whereas terminal oxygen atoms contain 2 or 3 lone pairs. The electron pair geometry of ozone molecule is trigonal planar because the center oxygen atom is $sp_{2}$ hybridized atom. Due to presence of lone pair on oxygen atom, the bond angle compressed to 116$^{\circ}$ bond angle from the ideal of 120$^{\circ}$.

O$_3$ Molecular Geometry Angle

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Ozone is a gaseous molecule which also exists in blue liquid form. It is a protective molecule which absorbed the UV radiation in the stratosphere. It is also produced as part of photochemical smog air pollution. It shows many adverse effects such as it is a powerful lung irritant. The molecular geometry angle of ozone molecule is 116$^{\circ}$ bond angle which is little less than from the ideal of 120$^{\circ}$. The compression of bond in ozone molecule is due to presence of lone pair on center oxygen atom which repel the bond pairs and reduce the bond angle. 

Ozone Molecular Geometry

O$_3$ Polarity

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Ozone molecule is a bent molecule due to presence of the lone pair of electrons on the central oxygen atom. Here the central oxygen atom is bonded to two other oxygen atoms and also contains a lone pair of electrons. Since the lone pair of electrons requires more space compare to bonding electrons therefore repulsion exists between the bonding electrons and the lone pair which will push down on the bonding electrons and reduce the bond angle. It makes the molecule bent in shape. 

Ozone Molecule

Only one terminal oxygen atom which contains 3 lone pairs will be $sp^3$ hybridized whereas remaining two oxygen atoms will be in $sp^2$ hybridization.
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