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Models of Chemical Bonding

Chemical Bonding is the kind of force that holds the atoms or ions together to form a molecule. There are three types of models of chemical bonding.

  • Classical Model

  • Polar Covalent Model

  • Quantum Mechanical Model

The bond formation is accompanied by the rearrangement of valence electrons.

Early examples represents the atoms hooked together like connections on top of a chain. Modern representations are of great deal, more abstract and often mathematical in nature. However, it is possible to present molecular structures with reasonable accuracy by using comparatively elementary roles models.

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Classical Model

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The classical model corresponds to the basic classification of compounds to covalent and ionic categories. This model do not take quantum behavior into the account. This model assumes the electron as point charges which will attract or repel according to law of electrostatics.

Ionic Model

Atoms have the tendency to achieve a completely filled valence shell like the inet gas. Metals like sodium tend to lose electron to attain full valence shells and non-metals like chlorine tend to gain electrons. The process of gaining and losing electrons by means of electrostatic force brings the ions together to form compounds. The attraction between the oppositely charged ions constitute ionic bond.

Precisely, the main restriction of this model is that it uses actually good only to the small category of solids compiled of Group 1 and 2 elements with extremely electronegative chemicals element such as the halogens. Even though chemicals compound such as CuCl2 dissociate into ions when they disband in H2O, the fundamental units constituting the solid are more like polymeric chemicals chain of covalently-bond CuCl2 molecules that have small ionic character.

Covalent Model

Covalent Model is a type of chemical bond characterized by sharing of pair of electrons between atoms and other covalent bonds. In covalent bonds, two atoms share one or more pairs of valence electrons to give each atom the stability found in a noble gas. Electron is an essential component of a chemical bond that it must be in the right place between the two nuclei.

Covalent bonding has more interaction which included sigma bonding, pi bonding, metal-to-metal bonding, agnostic interactions and three-centered two-electron bonds.

Polar Model

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Polar model has an unequal sharing of electrons. The number of shared electrons depends on the number of electrons required to make out the octet. Polar bond results when 2 dissimilar non-metals unequally share electrons between them. For example, universal solvent water possess the property of polar molecule.

Coulombic Model

Coulombic model is an extension of ionic model but compounds are ordinarily considered as non-ionic.

For example, combined hydrogen always exist as hydride ion.(H-) So, methane can be considered as C4+H4-. Proton has no significant size. So that, it is essentially embedded in an electron pair when it is combined to another atom in a covalent bond. This model is used to predict the bond energies and structure.


The VSEPR(valence shell electron repulsion) example is absolutely not considered as a model of chemical bonding as a system for explicating the forms of molecules. It depends on the quantum mechanical aspect that the bonds corresponds to electron and clouds the regions and repulsion of negative electric charge between each other. And so, try to stick as far apart as possible.

Quantum Mechanical Model

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Quantum Mechanical Model of bonding takes into account the basic fact that a particle is as light as the electron and cannot actually be supposed to be in any individual position.

As other types of bonding, quantum models make an effort to express how more electrons can be unexpectedly related to more nuclei. Rather than performing this through entirely geometrical statements, they try this by concluding the nature of the orbitals in which the valence electrons fill in united atoms.

Hybrid Orbital Model

Hybrid Orbital Model was put together by Linus Pauling in 1931 and was the 1st quantum-based model in bonding. This model is established on the assumption that when the s, p, and d orbitals tenanted by the valence electrons of nearby atoms are united in a desirable manner, the hybrid orbitals will have the character and directional places might be regular with the bonding form in the molecule.

Molecular Orbital Model

This example takes to a greater extent of basic approach by involving a molecule as a number of valence electrons and positive nuclei. Even as the nature of atomic orbitals gains from the spherical symmetry of a typical atom, the properties of these new molecular orbitals are governed by the fundamental action of the outermost electrons with a large number of +ve centers of these atomic cores.

Electron-Tunneling Model

Electron-Tunneling Model is a good example for quantum mechanical effect that permits electrons to travel (“tunnel”) through a barrier which separates two closely adjacent regions of lower potential energy. One of the result is that the effective volume of space available to the electron is increased, and according to the uncertainty principle, this increase will reduce the kinetic energy of the electron.

According to this model, the bonding electrons act as a kind of fluid that concentrates in the region of each nucleus. At the same time, it is able to freely flow between them.

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