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Representative Elements

Here in this page we are going to discuss about concept called representative elements. The metallic elements which are found on the left side and in the center of the periodic table are known as representative elements. The metals of Groups 1 and 2 are known as the representative metals and those which are present in the center of the periodic table are called the transition representative metals. The lanthanides and actinides are special classes of transition metals.


Representative Elements


  1. The elements of "s" and "p" blocks except "d" group elements are called as representative elements.
  2. Their outer shells are not completely filled with electrons.
  3. The elements get the nearest inert gas configuration by losing or gaining or sharing of electrons.
  4. They are chemically active. A few metals, all the non-metals and metalloids are representative elements.
  5. "s" block elements are placed at left side and "p" block elements are placed at the right side of the periodic table i.e., representative elements are placed at left and right side of the periodic table.

"S" Block Elements:

As an "s" orbital can have a maximum of two electrons, "s" block has two groups.
They are
  • Group I : (H, alkali metals) Electronic configuration of outer shell is $ns^1$
  • Group II : (alkaline earth metals) Electronic configuration of outer shell is $ns^2$
The electronic configuration of "s" block elements is $ns^1$ or $ns^2$.

"P" Block Elements:

As a "p" orbital can have a maximum of six electrons, .p' block has six groups. 
They are
  • Group III : (Boron family) Electronic configuration of outer shell is $ns^2$ or $ns^1$.
  • Group IV : (Carbon family) Electronic configuration of outer shell is $ns^2$ or $ns^2$.
  • Group V : (Nitrogen family) Electronic configuration of outer shell is $ns^2$ or $ns^3$.
  • Group VI : (Oxygen family) Electronic configuration of outer shell is $ns^2$ or $ns^4$.
  • Group VII : (Halogens) Electronic configuration of outer shell is $ns^2$ or $ns^5$.
The electronic configuration of "p" block representative elements varies from $ns^2$ or $ns^1$ to $ns^2$ or $ns^5$.

Representative Elements

 

Properties of Representative Elements

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Recollect from the former analysis of electron configurations that Hydrogen, Lithium and sodium all ended with s1 configuration. Whenever we look at other representative chemical element therein grouping we will have that the relation proceeds on down the periodic table. All of a common elements in group IA end in s1 configuration for their electron configuration.

$H 1s^1$

$Li 2s^1$

$Na 3s^1$

$K 4s^1$

$Rb 5s^1$

$Cs 6s^1$

$Fr 7s^1$

Classification of Representative Elements

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The representative elements are classified into 3 main groups. These groups are as follows:

1) The alkali metals,

2) The alkaline earth metals, and

3) The post-transitional metals.


1) The Alkali Metals

The given alkali metals in table are the group IA (1) chemicals element. They make strongly basic hydroxides, thus the term "alkaline" being utilized in basic substances. They have got a high metallic behavior and are good reducing factors in the table.

2) The Alkaline Earth Metals

The given alkaline earth metal in the table are precisely the group IIA (2) chemicals element. They are named alkaline earth metal because "earths" of this grouping, lime (CaO), and magnesium oxide (MgO), yield alkaline chemicals reaction in the column. They have very good metallic properties, that includes conduction, reduction power, luster, softness, malleability, and ductility etc.

3) The Post-Transition Metals

The given post-transition metallic element combine the lower chemical element of group IIIA (13), IVA (14), and VA (15), formatted in a helical fashion in the table. There properties having the like analogy to the alkaline earth metal as the alkaline earth metal have to the alkaline metal in the table.

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