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Natural Elements

Electrons first identified by J.J. Thomson in 1896 by cathode ray experiment. But the electron's charge was measured by physicist Robert Millikan in their oil-drop experiment of 1909. Proton discovered by E. Goldstein as positively charged rays also known as canal rays in 1886 and later in 1932; James Chadwick identified uncharged particles of the atom as a neutron. The discovery of subatomic particles; electron, proton and neutron, displayed a clear image of an atom.

Electrons are tiny, very light particles with negative electrical charge (-). Protons are much larger and heavier than electrons and have the opposite charge, a positive charge (+). Neutrons are large and heavy like protons; however, neutrons have no electrical charge. Charge of electron and proton is equivalent that is 1.6 x 10-19 coulomb but with opposite sign. Mass of electron is negligible; that is 9.10938188 × 10-31 kg which contributes only 0.06% of total atomic mass. The pure chemical substances which contain a single type of atoms are known as a chemical element. The chemical elements can better distinguish by their atomic numbers which denote the number of protons in an atom. 

On the basis of physical properties; elements can be classified as metals, non-metals and metalloids. Most elements are found in nature and known as natural elements but there are some artificial elements which are prepared in the laboratory and do not exist in nature. Let’s discuss natural elements in this article.
Periodic Table

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Natural Elements Chart

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The most important chemistry reference is the periodic table of elements. Scientist keep track of the natural elements on this chart. When we first look at the periodic table it looks very complicated. There are rows running left to right and columns running up and down. Plus there are different colors, numbers and symbols.

Natural Elements Alphabetical by Name and by Symbols


Actinium Ac
Aluminium Al
Antimony Sb
Argon Ar
Arsenic As
Astatine At
Barium Ba
Beryllium Be
Bismuth Bi
Boron B
Bromine Br
Cadmium Cd
Calcium Ca
Carbon C
Cerium Ce
Cesium Cs
Chlorine Cl
Chromium Cr
Cobalt Co
Copper Cu
Dysprosium Dy
Erbium Er 
Europium Eu
Fluorine F
Francium Fr
Gadolinium Gd
Gallium Ga
Germanium Ge
Gold Au
Hafnium Hf
Helium He
Hydrogen H
Indium In
Iodine I
Iridium Ir
Iron Fe
Krypton Kr
Lanthanum La
Lead Pb
Lithium Li
Lutetium Lu
Magnesium Mg
Manganese Mn
Mercury Hg
Molybdenum Mo
Neodymium Nd
Neon Ne
Nickel Ni
Niobium Nb
Nitrogen N
Osmium Os
Oxygen O
Palladium Pd
Phosphorus P
Platinum Pt
Polonium Po
Potassium K
Promethium Pm
Protactinium Pa
Radium Ra
Radon Rn
Rhenium Re
Rhodium Rh
Rubidium Rb
Ruthenium Ru
Samarium Sm
Scandium Sc
Selenium Se
Silicon Si
Silver Ag
Sodium Na
Strontium Sr
Sulfur S
Tantalum Ta
Tellurium Te
Terbium Tb
Thorium Th
Thallium Tl
Tin Sn
Titanium Ti
Tungsten W
Uranium U
Vanadium V
Xenon Xe
Ytterbium Yb
Yttrium Y
Zinc Zn
Zirconium Zr 

List of Natural Elements

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As of 2010, there are 118 known elements. Of these 118 elements, 98 occur naturally on Earth. Ten of these occur in extreme trace quantities: technetium, atomic number 43; promethium, number 61; astatine, number 85; francium, number 87; neptunium, number 93; plutonium, number 94; americium, number 95; curium, number 96; berkelium, number 97; and californium, number 98.

These 98 elements have been detected in the universe at large, in the spectra of stars and also supernovae, where short-lived radioactive elements are newly being made. The 98 natural elements are listed below.

Period Atomic number and name Symbol
1
1 Hydrogen
2 Helium
H
He
2
3 Lithium
4 Beryllium
5 Boron
6 Carbon
7 Nitrogen
8 Oxygen
9 Fluorine
10 Neon
Li
Be
B
C
N
O
F
Ne
3
11 Sodium
12 Magnesium
13 Aluminum
14 Silicon
15 Phosphorous
16 Sulfur
17 Chlorine
18 Argon
Na
Mg
Al
Si
P
S
Cl
Ar
4
19 Potassium
20 Calcium
21 Scandium
22 Titanium
23 Vanadium
24 Chromium
25 Manganese
26 Iron
27 Cobalt
28 Nickel
29 Copper
30 Zinc
31 Gallium
32 Germanium
33 Arsenic
34 Selenium
35 Bromine
36 Krypton
K
Ca
Sc
Ti
V
Cr
Mn
Fe
Ni
Cu
Co
Zn
Ga
Ge
Ar
Se
Br
Kr
5
37 Rubidium
38 Strontium
39 Yttrium
40 Zirconium
41 Niobium
42 Molybdenum
43 Technetium
44 Ruthenium
45 Rhodium
46 Palladium
47 Silver
48 Cadmium
49 Indium
50 Tin
51 Antimony
52 Tellurium
53 Iodine
54 Xenon
Rb
Sr
Y
Zr
Nb
Mo
Tc
Ru
Rh
Pd
Ag
Cd
In
Sn
Sb
Te
I
Xe
6
55 Cesium
56 Barium
57 Lanthanum
58 Cerium
59 Praseodymium
60 Neodymium
61 Promethium
62 Samarium
63 Europium
64 Gadolinium
65 Terbium
66 Dysprosium
67 Holmium
68 Erbium
69 Thulium
70 Ytterbium
71 Lutetium
72 Hafnium
73 Tantalum
74 Tungsten
75 Rhenium
76 Osmium
77 Iridium
78 Platinum
79 Gold
80 Mercury
81 Thallium
82 Lead
83 Bismuth
84 Polonium
85 Astatine
86 Radon
Cs
Ba
La
Ce
Pr
Nd
Pm
Sm
Eu
Gd
Tb
Dy
Ho
Er
Tm
Yb
Lu
Hf
Ta
W
Re
Os
Ir
Pt
Au
Hg
Tl
Pb
Bi
Po
At
Rn
7
87 Francium
88 Radium
89 Actinium
90 Thorium
91 Protactinium
92 Uranium
93 Neptunium
94 Plutonium
95 Americium
96 Curium
97 Berkelium
98 Californium
Fr
Ra
Ac
Th
Pa
U
Np
Pu
Am
Cm
Bk
Cf
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