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Covalent Compound Examples

Atom consists of electrons, protons and neutrons. Electrons are placed in orbits and protons are placed in nucleus with neutrons. The outermost shell of electron is called as valance shell and electrons which are present in it are called as valence shell electrons. These electrons take part in the chemical reactions and also in chemical bonding with other atoms. Atoms have tendency to complete their octet configuration to get stability. To get octet configuration, atoms can share or transfer their valence electrons. Hence we can say that chemical bonds are formed by the sharing or transfer of valance electrons between elements. Chemical bonds can be two types; ionic and covalent. Ionic bonds are electrostatic force of attraction between oppositely charged ions. Here ions are formed by complete transfer of valence electrons to get the octet configuration. The positively charged ions are formed by lose of electrons and called as cation whereas negatively charged ions are formed by the addition of electrons to form anion.

Ionic bond is the electrostatic force of attraction between cation and anion.  For example; there is one electron in the valence shell of the sodium atom and 7 valence electrons in chlorine atom. Sodium loses one electron to get the octet configuration and form sodium ion whereas chlorine atom accepts one electron to get octet configuration and form chloride ion. The electrostatic force between sodium ion and chloride ion form sodium chloride. Unlike ionic bond, covalent bonds are formed by equal sharing of electrons between the bonding atoms. In the formation of covalent bonds, the bonding atoms share equal number of valence electrons to form chemical bond. Each chemical bond is formed by two electrons; hence one electron will come from one bonding atom and other will come from another. For example; chlorine molecule is formed by two chlorine atoms. Here two chlorine atoms share one electron to form one covalent bond. Since the bonding electrons are located at the center of the bond therefore there would be neither positive nor negative charge over any of the bonding atoms. So we can say that ionic bond is attraction between cation and anion whereas covalent bond does not have charge.

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Examples of Covalent Compounds List

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Covalent bonds are formed by equal sharing of electrons from the bonding atoms. Usually such bonds are formed between two or more non-metals as they have least tendency to form ions. The compounds which are formed by the covalent bonding of elements are called as covalent compounds. For example; water is a covalent compound which is formed by the covalent bonding between hydrogen and oxygen atoms. Some of the common covalent compounds are listed below.

Covalent Compound  Name of Covalent Compound 
$ClF_{3}$ Chlorine trifluoride
$PCl_{5}$
Phosphorus pentachloride
$SO_{2}$
Sulfur dioxide
$N_{2}O_{5}$ Dinitrogen pentoxide
$NO_{2}$
Nitrogen dioxide
$O_{2}F_{2}$ Dioxygen difluoride
$SF_{6}$ Sulfur hexafluoride
SeO Selenium monoxide
$BrF_{5}$ Bromine pentafluoride
$S_{2}F_{2}$
Disulfur difluoride
CO
Carbon monoxide
$CF_{4}$
Carbon hexafluoride
$SeCl_{2}$
Selenium dichloride
$SO_{3}$
Sulfur dioxide
$H_{2}O$
Water
$NH_{3}$
Ammonia
$CH_{4}$
Methane

Examples of Covalent Compounds and their Uses

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Covalent compounds are also known as molecular compounds as they usually exist in the form of molecule. Different organic molecules such as proteins, nucleic acid, lipids are good examples of covalent compound. Water and ammonia are common covalent compounds which we are using in our everyday life. Some of the covalent compounds are $PCl_{3}$, $CH_{3}CH_{2}OH$, $O_{3}$ (ozone), $H_{2}$ (hydrogen), $H_{2}O$ (water), HCl (hydrogen chloride), $CH_{4}$ (Methane), $NH_{3}$ (Ammonia), $CO_{2}$ (Carbon dioxide) etc. 

Covalent Compounds Examples

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Most of the organic compounds are covalent compounds. Organic compounds are formed by carbon atoms in which carbon atoms are bonded with same or different atoms. The property of carbon atoms to bond with other carbon atoms to form long chain compounds is called as catenation. We know that carbon atom has 4 valence electrons therefore it is difficult to get or lose 4 electrons to complete its octet configuration. That is the reason; carbon ahs tendency to share 4 electrons to complete its octet and tends to for 4 covalent bonds. This is called as tetravalecy of carbon atom. Another good example of covalent compound is oxygen molecule which exists in the gaseous form and necessary to breathe.

Polar Covalent Compound Examples

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As discuss covalent bond is formed by equal sharing of valence electrons between two bonding atoms. If the bonding atoms have same electro negativities, the bonding electrons will locate at the center of chemical bond and there will be no charge in the bonding atoms. What will happen if the bonding atoms do not have same electro negativities? If the electro-negativities of bonding atoms are not same then the bonding electrons will partially shift towards the more electronegative atom. 

This partial shifting can induce partial charges on bonding atoms. The more electro negative atom will get partial negative charge and another bonded atom will get partial positive charge. The induction of partial charges over covalently bonded atoms forms polar covalent bond. Hydrogen chloride is the simplest example of covalent compound. 

Hydrogen is less electro negative element compare to chlorine which is a halogen. Therefore the covalently bonded bonding electrons shift partially towards chlorine atom and induce partial positive charge on hydrogen atom and partial negative charge on chlorine atom. Similarly water is also a polar covalent compound in which both hydrogen atoms have partial positive charges and oxygen atom has partial negative charge due to more electro negativity compare to hydrogen atoms. 

Polar Covalent Compound

Another example of polar covalent compound is ammonia in which one nitrogen atom is bonded with three hydrogen atoms. Here nitrogen is more electronegative compare to hydrogen atoms therefore the bonding electrons of covalent bond partially shifted towards nitrogen atom and induces partial negative charge over nitrogen atom and partial positive charges over three hydrogen atoms. 

Ammonia Compound

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