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Aroma Chemicals

Organic compounds are mainly classified as aliphatic and aromatic compounds. Aliphatic compounds are open chain or cyclic compounds such as alkane, alkene, alkyne and cycloalkane. Aromatic compounds are planer, cyclic compounds with conjugated pi-electron system. Aromatic compounds exhibit extra stability due to delocalized pi-electron system. Usually aromatic compounds have special aroma and high C- ratio compare to aliphatic compounds. That is the reason they burn with black sooty flame.

Benzene is simplest aromatic compound in which six carbon atoms are arranged in planer hexagonal form in which each carbon atom is sp2 hybridized and also bonded with one H atom. There are three pi-bonds in the ring which remain delocalize in hexagonal ring. The presence of different functional groups on benzene ring forms different derivatives of benzene like phenol, aniline, anisol, benzoic acid, benzaldehyde etc. These aromatic compounds are well known for their aroma and unique chemical and physical properties.

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Aroma Chemicals Definition

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Aroma chemicals can be defined as the aromatic compounds which have aromatic synthetic aromas. They are mainly involved in the perfume industries. Aroma chemicals are derived from natural products. A little amount of these aroma chemicals makes up unique perfumes and flavors. Some of the aroma chemicals have wonderful odour in their raw state whereas other chemicals may have unpleasant odour but when use in small amounts, they may produce long lasting odour. Most of the perfumes have 6-60% of aroma chemicals. Many aroma chemicals are used to provide flavors in candy, baked goods, drinks etc. First synthetic aroma chemicals are used in perfumes in 20th century. Aroma chemicals have different strengths like some of them are very strong whereas others are very soft and mild. Usually aroma chemicals with soft and mild odour are more useful than aroma chemicals with strong odour. 

Aroma Chemicals List

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6-Methyl Coumarin:  It is also named as 6-Methyl 1,2 Benzopyrone, Toncarine, 6 Methyl Benopyrone. The structure of this aroma chemical is given below.
 6-Methyl Coumarin
It is an aromatic compound with molecular formula C10H8O2 and molecular mass 160.17 g/mol. 6-Methyl Coumarin is usually found as white crystalline solid and has dry herbaceous coconut smell. Melting point is 74oC - 76oC and flash point is around 101oC. It is one of the most common constituent of coconut flavors. It is mainly used in fig, date, caramel, nut, butter, root beer etc. It is also used in different vanilla compositions. Because of its thermal stability it can be used to provide flavor in baked goods. 

Propenyl Guaethol
Propenyl Guaethol
 
Other names of this aroma compound are 1-Ethoxy-2-hydroxy-4-propenyl benzene or vanitrope. The IUPAC name suggests that there is an ethoxy group, hydroxyl group and allyl group bonded on aromatic ring. It is a white color powder that provides vanilla like flavor and taste. It is used to provide flavor to chocolate, nut, butterscotch, rum, mapple, vanila, and caramel. Sometime it is also used in perfumes as sweetener and also acts as replacement of vanillin.

Resorcinol Dimethyl Ether
Resorcinol Dimethyl Ether
 
Resorcinol dimethyl ether is also called as meta-dimethoxybenzene or 1,3-diethoxybenzene. The molecular formula of compound is C8H10O2 with molar mass 138.12 g/mol. It is pale coloured liquid with sweet intense nut link odour and taste. It is used as a novel additive to moss-base and also as part of hazelnut imitation flavor and fruit complexes.

Veratraldehyde

Veratraldehyde is an aromatic ketone and also known as 3,4-dimethoxybenzaldehyde or Vanillin methyl ether or veratruc aldehyde. It is white crystalline fused mass with sweet or woody vanilla odor. It is one of the excellent perfume materials and also a part of different fruit complexes.

Zingerone
 Zingerone
 
Zinerone or zingerone is also called as 4-(3-Methoxy-4-Hydroxyphenyl)-2 – Butanone or Vanillyl acetone.  It is a pale yellow coloured crystalline mass with pungent odor like vinegar. It is mainly used in perfume industries as a sweetener of warm, slightly spicy-tobacco like effect.

Anisyl Acetone


 Anisyl Acetone

It is another aroma compound which is also named as 4- (para-methoxyphenyl)-2- Butanone or Raspberry ketone methyl ether. It is a colourless to pale yellow liquid with sweet, fruity flavor and taste. Some common uses of anisyl acetone are listed below.
  1. As a modifier for heliotropine
  2. As a sweetener for cyclamen aldehyde
  3. As blender in sweet florals, fougeres and oriental fragrances

2-Ethoxy-4-Methyl Phenol
2-Ethoxy-4-Methyl Phenol

It is mainly used in perfume industries but may cause skin sensitization on skin contact.

2-Methoxy-4-Vinyl Phenol 

2-Methoxy-4-Vinyl Phenol

It is a white crystalline powder and also known as para-vinyl guaicol.  2-Methoxy-4-Vinyl Phenol is well known for powerful spicy clove like odour. 

Aroma Compounds in Perfume

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Aroma compounds are widely used in perfume industries. Some of the common aroma chemicals which are used in perfume industries are listed below. 

Aroma Compounds in Perfume

 Aroma compounds 
 Flavor and Fragrance 
 3-Phenyl Propanol FCC   Balsamic and oriental
 Amboryl Acetate  Woody and  amber
 Amyl Cinnamic Aldehyde 
 Jasmine and  cocoa
 Azuril  Citrus
 Benzyl Benzoate  odorless
 Bigarade Oxide  Woody and  herbal
 Cinnamic Alcohol FCC  Spicy and  oriental
 Citralis PQ  Fresh rosy  and citrus
 Cyprinal  Warm, spicy and balsamic 
 Cypriol  Sweet, balsamic and oriental
 Florosol  cyclamen and lilac
 Florosol A  floral green
 Florosol S  rose, cyclamen and lilac
 Fremycal  Floral and  sweet
 Hexyl Cinnamic Aldehyde  Floral, jasmine
 Isofreshal  Fatty-green and  aldehydic
 Laevo-Citronellol  Fresh and rosaceous
 Laventerre  Fruity and earthy
 Lilestralis® Pure  Fresh and floral
 Methyl Benzoate  Wintergreen and  camphoraceous 
 Methyl Cinnamic Aldehyde 
 Spicy and balsamic
 Nopyl Acetate  Mild, woody
 Ocimene PQ  Warm, ¬floral and  sweet
 Osyrol  Sandalwood
 Verdirosa  geranium
 Vetimoss  damp wood and  vegetation

Aroma Compounds in Food

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Decyl acetate, Lauryl acetate, Hexyl acetate, Adoxal, Haptanol, Allyl amyl glycolate and Allyl cyclohexyl propionate are common aroma chemicals that are used in food industries to provide unique aroma to different food stuff. 

Aroma Compounds in Common Flowers

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The scents of flowers are due to presence of different aroma compounds.  For example; roses have cis-rose oxide, β-damascenone and β-ionone which are responsible for their special aroma. Similarly eugenol, β-caryophyllene and methyl salicylate are present in carnations. Scents of liles are due to linalool, β-ocimene and myrcene. Some other flowers with their aroma compounds are listed below. 

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