An ecological system can be defined as the complex set of biotic and abiotic components which are interconnected with each other. For example; ocean, forest, ponds are ecological systems.
Only healthy ecosystem can sustainable. A healthy ecosystem has a balance between all components of it and is capable of reproducing itself. Due to biodiversity; there are many ecosystems in nature. Biodiversity can be defined as the variety of living organisms ad species in an environment. Ecosystems can be as small or large. For example; a single tree and a forest both are ecosystems. A specialized ecosystem which can exist in certain area or climate is called as biome. Various factors like temperature, rainfall, soil type and altitude are used to define a biome.
On our planet, there is only one source of energy that is Sun. We have limited natural resources like coal, crude oil etc. Therefore we should preserve them so we can use them for long time. Ecosystems give us an idea of environmental degradation of biotic and abiotic factors of it. Biotic components living things like plants, animals, bacteria and other decomposers whereas abiotic components include air, temperature, altitude, soil profile etc.
Study of various ecosystems is known as ecology. In other words we can say that ecology understands the relation between living systems and their environment. Ecology connects the nature, connecting communities and systems.
The ecological system theory was formulated by psychologist Urie Bronfenbrenner. According to the Ecological Systems theory human development is influenced by the different environmental systems. The ecological system theory explains the difference in behavior of human beings in different environments. This theory believed that the development of human beings was affected by their surrounding environment. This theory divided our surroundings into five different levels:
- The microsystem
- The mesosystem
- The exosystem
- The macrosystem
- The chronosystem
The system in which person is in closest proximity or they have direct contact system such as home, work place, school, daycare etc. Such systems include family, peers, classmates, teachers, neighbors or caregivers. Mesosystem:
It is next ecological system which consists of the interactions between the different parts of microsystem of person. The Micro systems of a person is always interconnected and assert influence upon one another. For example, parents neglect their child; he may have a low chance of developing positive attitude towards others like his friends or teachers. Exosystem:
In this setting, there is a connection between the context in which person does not have any active role and the context in which he is actively participating. For example; a child is more attached to his father and father goes outstation for some time, than there possibilities. Either there may be a conflict between the mother and the child's relationship, or it may result to a positive relation between the mother and the child.Macrosystem:
This system encompass with the cultural environment of people. It connects other systems with people.Chronosystem:
It includes the life transitions and shifts such as divorce affects the couple's relationship and also the behavior of their children.
Such types of ecological systems consist of 'a bio-geo-physical' unit with its actors and institutions. These systems are complex as well as adaptive. The socio-ecological system is a coherent system that regularly interacts in resilient and sustained manner.
These ecological systems are closed and do not show any transfer or transition from outside. They are small and usually man-made or artificial ecosystems. Life support system during space flights and space habitats are good examples of such systems.
Since there is no connection from outside system therefore the waste produced by one part of system must be used by another part of system. For example, the waste products from a life form like carbon dioxide, feces and urine should be converted into useful products such as oxygen, food, and water.
Such systems must contain at least one autotrophic organism. A glass enclosed bottle garden or aquarium are good examples of enclosed ecological system.