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Nucleotides

There are two varieties of beings on our planet Earth. Inanimate or non living and animate or living. All living beings have life in them. It was believed that due to a very unique combination of forces from the cosmos certain elements combined in such a fashion that the life generated in them and they are called living beings.
Plants, animals from uni cellular to macro bodies are formed from the repetition of these unique combination of elements. The amazing part of these living being is their capacity to absorb the energy, store, convert and utilize according to the needs and develop.
However, long or short the living cells have a definite life for themselves. After that the living cell becomes again the individual elements that it is composed of. During the life time the activity of building and the activity of dying go simultaneously. The branch of chemistry that is dedicated to study these phenomenon is known as bio chemistry. A number of scientists worked hard and unlocked so many avenues and found out the molecules and their structures, that help to sustain the vital force. Among those molecules one of the important group of compounds are called the nucleotides.

 

Nucleotide Structure

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  1. Nucleo proteins are found in every living cell. These are the polymers of nucleic acids.
  2. Nucleic acid molecules are poly ester chains called poly nucleotide chain. Thus nucleotide is a part of nucleic acid.
  3. Esters are the organic salts formed by the reaction between an alcohol and an acid.
  4. In the nucleotides the ester is attached to a base which is an amino acid portion. The sugar is the alcohol portion and phosphoric acid is the acidic portion.
  5. If the sugar is D-ribose the nucleic acid is known as RNA and if the sugar is D-2- deoxyribose the nucleic acid is known as DNA.

A typical example is given below indicating one unit of nucleotide. Many such units form nucleic acid.

Nucleotide Structure

Nucleotides Definition

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Nucleotide is defined as the basic building block of nucleic acid with characteristic arrangement of the base units. A nucleotide is the genetic message carrying unit. The sugar and the base combination is called a nucleoside and with phosphorus addition it becomes a nucleotide.

Components of Nucleotide

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A nucleotide contains three components. They are
  1. A pentose sugar unit ( 5-Carbon ring sugar)
  2. A nitrogen containing ring structure called a base.
  3. Two or three phosphategroups.
In DNA the pentose sugar is D-2-deoxyribose. The base contains two purines and two pyrimidines. The two purines are adenine(A) and guanine(G) and the two pyrimidines are Thymine (T) and cytocine(C).

In RNA the pentose sugar is D-ribose. The base contains two purines Adenine (A) and Guanine (G) and two pyrimidines Thymine (T) and Uracil(U). Both DNA and RNA are attached with three phosphate groups.

Structure of Nucleotide

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Nucleotides are linear molecules and together they combine to form a linear nucleic acid. The structure of some nucleotides are given below.

Mono Structure of Nucleotides Di Structure of Nucleotides Triphosphate Structure of Nucleotides

The nucleosides and their mono-, di-, and triphosphates

Base
Nucleoside
Nucleotides
DNA
Adenine (A)
Guanine (G)
Cytosine (C)
Thymine (T)
Deoxyadenosine
Deoxyguanosine
Deoxycytidine
Deoxythymidine
dAMP dADP dATP
dGMP dGDP dGTP
dCMP dCDP dCTP
dTMP dTDP dTTP
RNA
Adenine (A)
Guanine (G)
Cytosine (C)
Uracil (U)
Adenosine
Guanosine
Cytidine
Uridine
AMP ADP ATP
GMP GDP GTP
GMP GDP GTP
UMP UDP UTP

Examples of Nucleotides

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DNA and RNA are the examples of nucleotides

Nucleotide Structure


Bases in DNA

1. Adenine

Adenine

2. Guanine
Guanine

3. Cytosine
Cytosine

4. Thymine
Thymine

Bases in RNA

1. Adenine

Adenine

2. Guanine

Guanine

3. Cytosine

Cytosine

4. Uracil

Uracil

DNA Nucleotide

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Deoxyribonucleic acid DNA has a double helical structure as shown in the diagram.

DNA Nucleotide

RNA Nucleotides

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RNA exist as a single strand. The nucleoside are arranged in the same way as in DNA. The loop is called a hairpin which will occur in secondary or tertiary structures and is formed only when there is a complimentary unit in the single strand

The image shown below is the RNA structure of yeast cells.

RNA Nucleotides

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