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Macromolecules

A wide variety of shapes can be assumed by flexible chains. In a long chain of connected segments, the spatial relationship between neighboring segments is governed by bond lengths, by bond angle and by the rotational state of these bonds those that can be rotated. Such rotation is possible in most macromolecular chains and leads to an astronomically large number of permissible spatial arrangements of the segments so many that a statistical approach is absolutely necessary.

The repeating unit of a linear polymer is a small portion of the macromolecule such that linking together these units one after another gives rise to the formula of the whole molecule.

 

Macromolecules Definition

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"The term polymer stems from the Greek roots poly(many) and meros(part). The word thus means "many parts" and designates a molecule made up by the repetition of some simpler unit called a mer. Polymers contain thousands to millions of atoms in a molecule that is large; they are also called macromolecules." 

Macromolecules is joining a large number of small molecules called monomers. Chain conformation is the end to end distance. 

Macromolecules

Macromolecules Chart

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Biological memberanes, however contain a wide variety of chemically distinct phospholipids, varying in the polar head group as well as the acyl chain length and degree of unsaturation. Some of these lipids, although present in relatively small amounts have been shown to be essential for cell viability. The chart shown below gives some typical values of polymers and monomers of macromolecules. 
Macromolecules Chart

The polymer conformations of different crystalline arrangements that can exist, the large variation in the modulus should not surprise us. Another physical property of macromolecules is of great importance is tensile strength, the ultimate load that a material can bear without breaking.

Biological Macromolecules

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A biological macromolecules is a large molecule comprised of many fundamental units joined together. Proteins are broken down by hydrolysis into a mixture of monomers called amino acids. In biological systems the polypeptide chain is always straight, there is no branching and is almost always made of a variety of amino acid monomers.

Biological macromolecules have evolved to function in a crowded environment thus raising to biologically important molecules. Macromolecules such as enzymes and hormones, have well defined biological activities and are uniquely specific.The same is largely true for the previously mentioned biological macromolecules with the exception of antigens.

Macromolecules Impact Factor

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The impact factor has been defined by the macromolecules are always synthesized by the stepwise polymerization of similar or identical small molecules called monomers. The addition of each monomeric unit occurs with the removal of a water molecule and is therefore termed a condensation reaction.

Macromolecules are characterized by biological organization and function are polymers of small, hydrophilic organic molecules. The process through which these macromolecules are organized into the supra molecular assemblies and organelles that are readily recognizable as cellular structures. Macromolecules are also called biopolymers. Biopolymers or the biological macromolecules form the major class among the biomolecules both structurally and functionally.

4 Types of Macromolecules

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Macromolecules and other molecules are simple and small in size and includes all other ordinary bio molecules. There are four types of macromolecules in biological systems, namely carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids. Out of these four types three are polymers composed of monomers or the building blocks and lipids are not polymers.

Types of macromolecules also include monosaccharides or sugars, amino acids, nucleotides, vitamins, coenzymes and fatty acids. Some of these molecules are the building blocks of macromolecules. Biological macromolecules are the most important example of copolymers, proteins are polymer chains composed of 20 types of monomer units.

Examples of Macromolecules

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Macromolecules are divided into two classes, natural and synthetic macromolecules. Examples of natural macromolecules are proteins, nucleic acids, polysaccharides that are cellulose and polyisoprene that is rubber. Most synthetic macromolecules are organic polymers such as polyhexamethylene adipamide that is nylon, polyethylene terephthalate that is dacron and mylar and polymethylmethacrylate that is lucite and plexiglas.

The macromolecules that are responsible for most of the form and order characteristic of living systems are generated by the polymerization of small organic molecules. Macromolecules are then assembled into a variety of supramolecular structures, which in turn are components of organelles and other subcellular structures and hence of the cell itself.
More topics in Macromolecules
Examples of Macromolecules Four Macromolecules
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