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Anabolism

There are two varieties of beings on our planet Earth. Inanimate or non living and animate or living. All living beings have life in them. It was believed that due to a very unique combination of forces from the cosmos certain elements combined in such a fashion that the life generated in them and they are called living beings.

  1. Plants, animals from uni cellular to macro bodies are formed from the repetition of these unique combination of elements.
  2. The amazing part of these living being is their capacity to absorb the energy, store,convert and utilize according to the needs and develop.
  3. However long or short the living cells have a definite life for themselves. After that the living cell becomes again the individual elements that it is composed of.
  4. During the life time the activity of building and the activity of dying go simultaneously.

 

Anabolism Definition

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One of the important category of organic compounds is the amino acids. These are the molecules having amino group as well as carboxylic group in their molecular structure.

In general terms these are carriers of acidic as well as basic components with them separated by a neutral molecular chain. These amino acids combine in numbers and form a large molecular units called proteins.

Anabolism is defined as "a process in which simpler molecules combining to form complex compounds." Living cells combine amino acids to form structural proteins and functional proteins.
Structural proteins are those which help repair and replace tissues. Enzymes, antibodies and hormones are functional proteins. The purpose of these are to catalyze chemical reactions, help fight disease and regulate body processes respectively. Anabolic reaction is shown below.

Anabolic Reactions

Protein Anabolism

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  1. Protein anabolism is a process of building up of the proteins.
  2. With the involvement of enzymes and Ribonucleic acid (RNA) amino acids combine with their amino group in peptide linkages and forms long chain proteins which is called protein anabolism.
  3. Protein anabolism is necessary for body muscle building, strength growth and recovery.
  4. Adenosinetriphosphate (ATP) is one of the essential conduits that help in bringing together the smaller amino acids in to proteins.
  5. These are assisted by growth hormones called anabolic steroids. which will act as stimulants for the growth of proteins and in turn the muscles.
  6. Protein anabolism is essential to reduce fat and increase the muscular strength.

Protein Anabolism

Examples of Anabolism

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Examples of anabolism are Protein synthesis, Glycogen synthesis, lipid synthesis RNA synthesis and DNA synthesis.
  1. Glycogen synthesis is a polymerization reaction where glucose units in the form of UDP-glucose. These are added one at a time to a growing polysaccharide chain. The reaction is catalyzed by glycogen synthase. This is an example of anabolism.
  2. Protein anabolism is essential to reduce fat and increase the muscular strength.
  3. The process of changing the information that is there in a DNA segment into proteins starts with the synthesis of mRNA molecules containing several hundred to several thousand ribonucleotides, depending on the size of the protein to be made.
  4. Human body contains roughly one lakh of proteins. These are synthesized from a different mRNA that has been transcribed from a specific gene on DNA. thus synthesis of RNA is an essential anabolic example.
  5. DNA is a heterocyclic amine combination which stores the hereditary material in a cell coded in a sequence. Specific regions, called genes, on each chromosome contain the hereditary information which distinguishes individuals from each other.
  6. Genes also contain the coded information like DNA that is required for the synthesis of proteins and enzymes needed for the normal functions of the cells.
  7. The process of DNA duplication is usually called replication. The original polynucleotide strand of DNA serves as a template to guide the synthesis of the new complementary polynucleotide of DNA.
  8. The process of duplication of DNA is an anabolic process. Lipid which is a smaller protein is synthesized in the body.
Fatty acid synthesis where the long alkyl chains are assembled using acetyl-CoA as substrate and assembly of the lipid by combining, sn-glycerol-3-phosphate, the finished fatty acid and the polar head group.
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